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IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Philippines (December 2001)

Counter-insurgency operations and related military activity remain the leading cause of conflict-induced displacement in the Philippines today. The main area of fighting and displacement is Mindanao, the second largest island in the country, where islamized ethnic groups have been struggling for autonomy or independence for the last thirty years.

17 December 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Guatemala

In 1996 the government and representatives of the insurgency movement signed a number of peace accords and brought an end to the 36-year conflict. However, some elements of the accords, such as the reintegration of the displaced, have only been partially implemented.

13 December 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Nigeria

Conflict-induced displacement in Nigeria is caused by several, individual conflicts. Available figures suggested that towards the end of 2001, a total of some 400,000 people were internally displaced, of which 300,000 resulted from the latest ethnic clashes in central Nigeria during October 2001.

28 November 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Ethiopia (November 2001)

A border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia escalated into a major military confrontation in May 1998 and caused the internal displacement of some 177,000 Ethiopians (UNCTE 2 February 1999, p. 2). More people were displaced when the fighting intensified in February 1999.

27 November 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Mexico

Violent land disputes have traditionally caused displacement on a small scale in Mexico. However, more substantial internal displacement took place during the 1990s because of the armed conflict between the insurgents, "Zapatista Army of National Liberation" (EZLN) and the Mexican army. The conflict has forced large groups of mostly indigenous peasants from the southern state of Chiapas to flee their homes.

20 November 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Uzbekistan

Episodes of internal displacement in Uzbekistan have mainly occurred as a result of a Government campaign against suspected supporters of Islamic extremist groups. Today, an estimated 3000 persons are displaced after fighting between Government forces and armed insurgents in the Uzbek-Tajik border areas in August 2000 (U.S.OSCE 22 February 2001).

09 November 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Afghanistan (October 2001)

Following the September 11 events in the USA, the situation of Afghanistan has taken a new dramatic turn with the civilians yet again paying the highest price. Accused of harboring Osama Ben Laden, the prime suspect of the terrorist attacks, the Taleban are now facing the most serious threat to their regime since they came to power in 1996.

31 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Eritrea (October 2001)

A border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia escalated in May 1998 into a major military confrontation that immediately caused the displacement of an estimated 100,000 Eritreans (USCR 1999, p.64). Renewed fighting during 1999 made the total number of IDPs reach 266,200 by the end of the year (UN January 2000, p.2).

31 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Burundi

Despite hope of political stabilization in Burundi, there is still no cease-fire between the government and two of a number of rebel groups operating in Burundi. About 633,000 people are internally displaced, both in sites and dispersed throughout the country-side, out of a total population of 6.65 million (UN OCHA 12 October 2001).

22 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Russian Federation (October 2001)

Existing data suggest that at least 500,000 persons are currently displaced in the Russian Federation as a result of armed conflict and violence in North Caucasus. The exact scope of internal displacement can however not be determined with precision. The vast majority has been forced to leave their homes in Chechnya devastated by two conflicts in less that a decade.

12 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Democratic Republic of the Congo (October 2001)

Many thousands of civilians have fled their homes in the latest round of inter-ethnic fighting to erupt in Bunia, the main town in DR Congo’s northeastern Ituri district, prompting top UN officials to warn of possible genocide. With rival ethnic militias battling for control of the town, amid reports of widespread killing and looting, UN peacekeepers (MONUC) are outnumbered and overwhelmed.

08 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Pakistan

During British colonial rule in India, Kashmir was a quasi-independent state with a majority Muslim population but a Hindu ruler. After British rule of the subcontinent ended in 1947, dispute over Kashmir has been the flash point for two wars between India and Pakistan (IMTD 2001). Alongside the rival claims of India and Pakistan a rebel Muslim separatist movement has been active in the territory since 1989.

01 October 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile in Internal Displacement: Indonesia and East Timor

In the wake of the financial crisis that hit the country in 1998, religious and ethnic violence as well as renewed aspiration for separatism started to surface throughout the country, spreading rapidly from one area to another and leading to the displacement of more than 530,000 people in 1999

20 August 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Somalia: Profile of internal Displacement

After a somewhat hopeful start in 2001, an upsurge in inter-clan fighting and a return to drought conditions have pushed Somalia back on the forsaken path that it has followed for over a decade. With little hope for peace in the near future, the people of Somalia remain some of the most vulnerable in the world.

01 August 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Iraq (July 2001)

From a security perspective, Iraq has been de facto divided since 1991 in two areas, northern Iraq, under Kurdish administrative control, and the rest of the country, under government control. USCR estimated that about 700,000 persons were internally displaced at the end of 2000, i.e. 600,000 in northern Iraq and about 100,000 in the government-controlled area (USCR 2001, p.179). Due to lack of information, there is however no reliable figure on internal displacement in Iraq.

25 July 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Colombia (July 2001)

Most national and international agencies rate Colombia among the countries with the largest internally displaced population in the world. According to local NGO sources, as of July 2001, over 2 million people had been displaced as a result of violence since 1985, with 317,000 persons displaced in 2000, and 92,000 persons displaced the first quarter of 2001.

19 July 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Lebanon

During the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), almost a third of the population, both Christian and Muslim, were displaced at one point. About 450,000 persons had not returned to their former home by the end of the war and today 350,000 are still considered displaced (USCR 2000, p.200 & UNDP 1997).

12 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement in Uganda

Internal displacement in Uganda is caused by separate armed conflicts in northern and western areas, as well as violent cattle raids in the east. Although the conflict cannot be considered a countrywide civil war, it affects about one quarter of the country's 45 districts (UN November 1999).

09 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Sri Lanka: Profile of Internal Displacement

The main cause of displacement in Sri Lanka is the armed conflict between the LTTE (The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and Government forces. Other war-related causes of displacement include forced recruitment by the LTTE, human rights abuse by both sides and inter-communal violence in the east (UNHCR November 2000).

06 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Rwanda

Seven years after the genocide, 66 percent of the Rwandan population remain under the poverty line and up to 1.5 million people live in inadequate shelters (WFP 4 December 2000 & OCHA 2 February 2001). Many were resettled in 1998-1999 by the Rwanda government in the context of the villagization process and there is a debate at the international level whether they should still be counted as internally displaced.

23 May 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Afghanistan (April 2001)

The main cause for conflict-induced displacement in Afghanistan today is the civil war between the Taliban, who control 95% of the country and the Northern Alliance, a multi-ethnic opposition group with a stronghold in the North. Population displacement has also been caused by natural disasters, which occur with alarming regularity. Afghanistan currently faces its worst drought since 1971, affecting all segments of the population.

26 April 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Democratic Republic of the Congo (April 2001)

The dramatic situation of internal displacement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a result of events which started in the early 1990s. At this time, political instability, accompanied by inter-ethnic rivalry in the central and eastern regions, had already resulted in the displacement of several hundred thousand people.

09 April 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Philippines (March 2001)

The main cause for displacement in the Philippines today is the conflict between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a Muslim insurgent group that strives for self-determination on the southern island of Mindanao.

27 March 2001 | Country Profile

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