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IDMC

Somalia: Profile of internal Displacement

After a somewhat hopeful start in 2001, an upsurge in inter-clan fighting and a return to drought conditions have pushed Somalia back on the forsaken path that it has followed for over a decade. With little hope for peace in the near future, the people of Somalia remain some of the most vulnerable in the world.

01 August 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Iraq (July 2001)

From a security perspective, Iraq has been de facto divided since 1991 in two areas, northern Iraq, under Kurdish administrative control, and the rest of the country, under government control. USCR estimated that about 700,000 persons were internally displaced at the end of 2000, i.e. 600,000 in northern Iraq and about 100,000 in the government-controlled area (USCR 2001, p.179). Due to lack of information, there is however no reliable figure on internal displacement in Iraq.

25 July 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Colombia (July 2001)

Most national and international agencies rate Colombia among the countries with the largest internally displaced population in the world. According to local NGO sources, as of July 2001, over 2 million people had been displaced as a result of violence since 1985, with 317,000 persons displaced in 2000, and 92,000 persons displaced the first quarter of 2001.

19 July 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Lebanon

During the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), almost a third of the population, both Christian and Muslim, were displaced at one point. About 450,000 persons had not returned to their former home by the end of the war and today 350,000 are still considered displaced (USCR 2000, p.200 & UNDP 1997).

12 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement in Uganda

Internal displacement in Uganda is caused by separate armed conflicts in northern and western areas, as well as violent cattle raids in the east. Although the conflict cannot be considered a countrywide civil war, it affects about one quarter of the country's 45 districts (UN November 1999).

09 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Sri Lanka: Profile of Internal Displacement

The main cause of displacement in Sri Lanka is the armed conflict between the LTTE (The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and Government forces. Other war-related causes of displacement include forced recruitment by the LTTE, human rights abuse by both sides and inter-communal violence in the east (UNHCR November 2000).

06 June 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Rwanda

Seven years after the genocide, 66 percent of the Rwandan population remain under the poverty line and up to 1.5 million people live in inadequate shelters (WFP 4 December 2000 & OCHA 2 February 2001). Many were resettled in 1998-1999 by the Rwanda government in the context of the villagization process and there is a debate at the international level whether they should still be counted as internally displaced.

23 May 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Afghanistan (April 2001)

The main cause for conflict-induced displacement in Afghanistan today is the civil war between the Taliban, who control 95% of the country and the Northern Alliance, a multi-ethnic opposition group with a stronghold in the North. Population displacement has also been caused by natural disasters, which occur with alarming regularity. Afghanistan currently faces its worst drought since 1971, affecting all segments of the population.

26 April 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Democratic Republic of the Congo (April 2001)

The dramatic situation of internal displacement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a result of events which started in the early 1990s. At this time, political instability, accompanied by inter-ethnic rivalry in the central and eastern regions, had already resulted in the displacement of several hundred thousand people.

09 April 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Philippines (March 2001)

The main cause for displacement in the Philippines today is the conflict between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a Muslim insurgent group that strives for self-determination on the southern island of Mindanao.

27 March 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Russian Federation (March 2001)

Existing data suggest that at least 510,000 persons are currently displaced in the Russian Federation, mostly as a result of the two armed conflicts over the last decade in the northern Caucasian Republic of Chechnya. Of this figure, only 140,000 of them, mostly ethnic Russians who left North Caucasus during the first conflict in Chechnya (1994- 1996), are currently registered by the Federal authorities as "forced migrants".

23 March 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile in Internal Displacement: Syrian Arab Republic

It should be noted that according to information available for this profile, people displaced from the Golan did not resettle voluntarily and still wish to go back to their former homes. We therefore consider them as internally displaced persons. Comments and additional information regarding this issue as well as others are welcome and will be included in the updated version of this document.

14 March 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Eritrea (March 2001)

A border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia escalated into a major military confrontation in May 1998, causing the displacement of an estimated 100,000 Eritreans from the border areas (USCR 1999, p.64). Renewed fighting in February 1999 caused a new wave of displacement (RI 25 June 1999, SCF August 1999), bringing the total number of IDPs to 266,200 by the end of 1999. On 12 May 2000, Ethiopia initiated a major military offensive deep into Eritrea that led to a flow of people fleeing artillery and aerial bombardments, and forced the original IDP population to flee even further from the border.

02 March 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Ethiopia (March 2001)

A border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia escalated into a major military confrontation in May 1998 immediately displacing some 177,000 people (UNCTE 2 February 1999, p. 2). Intense fighting in February 1999 led to further displacement. Ethiopia initiated a major military offensive deep into Eritrea in May 2000, followed by a cease-fire agreement on 18 June 2000.

02 March 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Colombia (February 2001)

Most national and international agencies now rate Colombia among the countries with the largest internally displaced population in the world. According to local NGO sources as of 8 August, almost 2 million persons have been displaced as a result of violence since 1985, with 288,000 persons displaced in 1999 alone.

27 February 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Iraq (February 2001)

There are several causes of internal displacement to and within northern Iraq and today 800,000 persons are considered displaced in the north (USCR 2000, p.187). The most serious cause has been Iraqi government actions.

06 February 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Sierre Leone

Escalated rebel activity since May 2000 has hindered access to large areas of Sierra Leone, making the collection and verification of countrywide figures for the total internally displaced population difficult. Humanitarian agencies often refer to registered IDPs when providing figures, but a large number of non-registered IDPs live with host families or in hiding.

01 January 2001 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Kenya

By the end of 2000, it is unclear how many Kenyans remained displaced given the spontaneous resettlement of some populations and new displacement of others during recent years. USCR estimated that 100,000 Kenyans remained internally displaced by the end of 1999 (USCR 2000)

21 December 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Burundi

Large-scale political and communal violence has plagued Burundi since 1993, following the assassination of President Melchior Ndadaye. The current President, Major Buyoya, took power in a military coup in 1996. In response to the coup, governments of neighboring states imposed an economic embargo. The embargo was lifted in January 1999, after Buyoya agreed to a power sharing agreement in the National Assembly and began negotiations for a peace settlement with opposing parties and armed opposition groups.

07 December 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Sri Lanka: Profile of Internal Displacement

The main cause of displacement in Sri Lanka is the armed conflict between the LTTE (The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and Government forces. Other war-related causes of displacement include forced recruitment by the LTTE, human rights abuse by both sides and inter-communal violence in the east (UNHCR November 2000).

25 November 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Democratic Republic of the Congo (November 2000)

The present situation of internal displacement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a result of events which started in the early 1990s when political instability accompanied by inter-ethnic rivalry in the central and eastern regions caused several hundreds of thousands of people to become displaced and/or forced to resettle (USCR 1995, p.82).

24 November 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Rwanda

Six years after the genocide Rwanda is still living with consequences. Although most people who fled their homes in the aftermath of the genocide have returned home, problems of displacement continued in 1997/98 with a rebel insurgency in the north. Currently about 1.5 million people are considered by the UN to be in a 'refugee-like situation' (OCHA 10 Oct 2000).

30 October 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Eritrea

A border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia in the Badame area broke out into a major military confrontation in May 1998, displacing an estimated 100,000 Eritreans from the border areas (USCR 1999, p.64). Renewed fighting in February 1999 caused a new wave of displacement (RI 25 June 1999, SCF August 1999), bringing the total number of IDPs to 266,200 by the end of 1999. On 12 May 2000, Ethiopia initiated a major military offensive deep into Eritrea which forced the original IDP population to flee even further from the border.

11 October 2000 | Country Profile

IDMC

Profile of Internal Displacement: Russian Federation

A wide variety of population migration movements in the territories of the former Soviet Union has consistently made comprehensive and reliable figures on the internally displaced population within the Russian Federation difficult to establish. The complexity of the situation is best reflected by the various terms applying to internally displaced persons in the region

10 October 2000 | Country Profile

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